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Germination tested on August, 2023
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Pigeon Pea is a perennial evergreen shrub that can reach a height of over 3m. It has a 5-year lifetime, with seed production decreasing each year. Pigeon Pea is adapted to subtropical, tropical climates and thrives in a wet, moist environment. It is not frost resistant and prefers warmer temperatures. Pigeon Pea, a legume, produces bright yellow pea-like flowers followed by seed pods that begin green and turn brown as they dry. Typically, many seed pods are made, which can then be harvested and dried for storage. Given the seeds' high germination rate, keep this in mind if you want to use the clippings in your garden.
Benefits/Uses of Red Gram/Pigeon Pea
Magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, and potassium are all abundant in pigeon peas. Additionally, it contains less copper, zinc, magnesium, iron, and selenium. In India, flattened pods account for a sizable portion of pulses. The seeds come in many shapes, sizes, and colors. It is round or oval and is available in white, brown, red, greyish, or purplish hues. It has a white hylum. The following are a few well-known benefits of Pigeon Peas:
- Maintains blood pressure
Potassium is a critical mineral in pigeon peas that functions as a vasodilator, relaxing blood vessels and lowering blood pressure. Many that have hypertension or are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease should include pigeon peas in their daily diet.
- Contribute to growth
Pigeon peas are also high in protein, which is essential for growth and development. It plays a critical role in the development of cells, tissues, muscles, and bones. Additionally, it aids in the body's healing process, and cell regeneration. 11 grams of protein are contained in one cup of cooked pigeon peas.
- Prevents anemia
Folate is present in sufficient quantities in pigeon peas, which aids in preventing anemia and neural tube defects in the unborn, which are caused by a folate deficiency. A single cup of pigeon peas contains approximately 110 percent of the daily recommended vitamin intake.
Owing to the presence of organic compounds, the seeds, leaves, and peas of pigeon peas are used to treat inflammation. The mashed pigeon peas paste used to treat hemorrhoids or stacks.
Specifications of Red Gram/Pigeon Pea Seeds
Pigeon Pea, Red gram
30 deg- 35 deg
well-drained and loamy soil
Requires heavy doses of the nutrients
|No. of seeds||15|
Planting and Care for Red Gram/Pigeon Pea
Sowing Red Gram/Pigeon Pea Seeds
- Pigeon pea should be sown between June and July, depending on the variety.
- Still sow in rows. At the time of sowing, the distance between plants should be kept to 30 cm, and the distance between rows should be kept to 60-75 cm.
- For late sowing varieties, maintain a distance of 30 cm between plants and 85-90 cm between rows.
- Sowing can be achieved with the assistance of a seed drill machine to ensure that the seed falls evenly across the field at a similar distance and fixed location. Seed is sown in this manner until it reaches a specified depth in the field.
- This promotes plant growth and raises crop yields.
- Intercropping wheat, onion, moong, and sorghum with pigeon pea is possible.
Growing Red Gram/Pigeon Pea
- The pigeon pea's growth cycle varies considerably.
- Pigeon peas take 100-300 days to mature, depending on the variety. Place, and thus local microclimate and sowing date, all directly affect the duration of the growing season.
- In India, most late-maturing varieties need approximately 240-280 days to produce a seed crop, while many older early-maturing types need about 180 days.
- Although the pigeon pea is a perennial crop that can be harvested for up to three years, seed yields usually decline dramatically after the first year.
- When planting commercially, it is preferable to treat it as an annual.
Harvesting Red Gram/Pigeon Pea
- Harvesting is carried out manually.
- When the pods are mature, and the majority of the leaves have dried and shed, they are harvested.
- The plants are then cut to the ground and are tied together in bundles.
- After threshing, the pods and leaves are pounded with sticks, and the seeds and chaff are separated by winnowing.
- After threshing, the seeds are thoroughly washed and dried to a moisture content of 10%.
- Seeds are usually packed in earthenware or metal containers that are often coated in sand.
Precautions while growing Red Gram/Pigeon Pea
- Treat the seeds with a talc formulation of Trichoderma viride at a concentration of 4g per kilogram of seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10g per kilogram of seed. Biocontrol agents may be used in conjunction with biofertilizers.
- Irrigate immediately after sowing, on the third day following sowing, during the bud initiation, 50% flowering, and pod growth periods. Stagnation of water should be stopped.
Common Problems affecting Red Gram/Pigeon Pea plants and solutions
- Alternaria blight Alternaria, Anthracnose, Cercospora leaf spot, and Fusarium wilt are the most common diseases that affect Red Gram/Pigeon Pea plants.
- To avoid the problem, take the following steps:
- Plant beans in fertile soil; Trichoderma Viride Bio Fertilizer application may be essential to control the disease.
- Plant resistant varieties; use disease-free seed; prevent overhead irrigation; plow bean crop debris into the soil.
- Crop rotation with non-host crops like cereals and corn; plant rows parallel to the path of prevailing winds to avoid disease transmission from neighboring secondary hosts; stop using an unnecessary amount of nitrogen fertilizer; utilize a large row spacing
- Crop rotation should be done on a long-term basis; stop over-or under-watering plants.
- Aphids, Armyworms, Corn earworms, Cutworms, Nephelodes, and Leafminers are the pests/insects that attack Red Gram/Pigeon Pea plants.
- If the aphid population is contained to a few leaves or shoots, the infestation may be controlled by pruning; inspect transplants for aphids prior to planting. It is strongly advised to use a biopesticide.
- Organic control methods for armyworms, cutworms, corn earworms, and Nephelodes include biological control by using natural enemies that parasitize the larvae and applying a bio pest controller for biting pests.
- After harvesting, or at least two weeks before planting, remove all plant residue from the soil.
- Prior to planting, inspect transplants for signs of leafminer damage; immediately remove plants from soil following harvest; use insecticides only when leafminer damage is identified; excessive spraying would also reduce populations of their natural enemies.
No. of Red Gram/Pigeon Pea Seeds - 15
- Mix 10 grams of pseudomonas powder in water and make it as a loose paste. (optional)
- Add the seeds to the solution and soak it for 30 minutes. (optional)
- Take a seedling tray and fill it with our potting soil.
- Sow the seeds at 1/2 inch (small seeds) or 1 inch depth (big seeds) and water them using our watering can.(Rough watering or exposure to rain may dislocate the seeds and affect germination).
- The soil should be wet and it shouldn't get dry or soggy. Water when the top soil dries out.
- Place the seedling tray in a warm spot (15°C - 21°C) until germination (it will take 4 to 21 days).
- After germination seedlings need a lot of sunlight. Transfer the seedlings to the grow bags when they have 1 - 2 sets of true leaves.
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